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Legacies: Collecting America's History at the Smithsonian, by Steven Lubar and Kathleen M. Kendrick
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Shoe made by a Sioux student at Carlisle Indian School, 1885Shoe made by a Sioux student at Carlisle Indian School, 1885

Under the slogan "Into Civilization and Citizenship," Captain Richard Henry Pratt, founder of the Carlisle Indian School, took thousands of Indian children off the reservations and away from their families for academic, vocational, and moral instruction. In 1885 he presented the National Museum with several pairs of shoes made by students to show how his school was transforming Indians into "acceptable productive citizens."

See also: Native American History, Shoes

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